Monday, May 25, 2020

The Stone Cutters (Part 2): John DeLeeuwe, artist


Despite the financial ruin that the 1890s brought for George Evans, the flourish with which he handled his finances also brought about his desire to spend monies on embellishment in his architectural creations. Evans first partnered with French born stone carver John DeLeeuwe while constructing the Fort Worth post office in 1893. DeLeeuwe had had a varied artistic background. While he learned his stone carving trade at his father’s art school in Brussels, Belgium, he also performed as an opera singer prior to his arrival in America. DeLeeuwe’s first work for Evans at the post office at Fort Worth was primarily limited to gingerbread features. He became one of Evans’ “go to” men for services, and during their working relationship DeLeeuwe created a lifelike bust of Evans which Evans displayed in his office. DeLeeuwe’s next project with Evans gave him an opportunity to further showcase his clever and artistic talents on the Shawnee County (KS) courthouse in 1896. 

Shawnee County Courthouse


DeLeeuwe was an advocate for making public buildings not only functional, but beautiful: “There is no reason in the world why we don’t have more decorations on the public buildings.” In preparation for the courthouse work, DeLeeuwe built plaster of paris models in a small artist shed outside of his residence. DeLeeuwe was assisted by craftsman George Ward and their creations for the courthouse included dragons, lions, and floral designs. The main courthouse building was constructed of stone from Colorado quarries, but the trim was done in Bedford, Indiana stone. 

One of DeLeeuwe's dragons from the courthouse

With the collapse of Evans’ empire, DeLeeuwe moved west. In the late 1890s, he was chosen as one of the artists for the new Thomas Melton Stanford library construction at Stanford University. DeLeeuwe’s part was to create a sandstone likeness of Benjamin Franklin for display on the front of the building. Sadly, the library was considerably damaged in the 1906 California earthquake and replaced with the current building. DeLeeuwe’s last documented employment was at a monument company in San Luis Obispo, but he had started to drink heavily and deplete his personal funds. He left town abruptly after forging checks under his employer’s name. 

San Francisco Chronicle July 1899

Evans’ Shawnee County Courthouse was razed in 1965, but examples of DeLeeuwe’s work can still be seen in a pocket park called the Chandler Library Pavillion adjacent to the Topeka Shawnee County Public Library. The park was created in 2004 by local architect Raymond Sherwood “Bud” Smith II. 

Gateway of the Chandler Pavilion featuring DeLeeuwe's work

References

San Francisco Chronicle
1899    “Statue of Benjamin Franklin For the Stanford Library.” San Francisco Chronicle (newspaper), San Francisco, CA. July 14, 1899. Page 3.

San Luis Obispo Daily Telegram
1909    “Sculptor’s Clever Work. Mr. DeLeeuw is Completing a Massive Figure of Art for Mr. Troy’s Office.” San Luis Obispo Daily Telegram (newspaper), San Luis Obispo, CA. February 24, 1909.

Topeka Mail
1894    “The New Court House.” Topeka Mail (newspaper), Topeka, KS. May 18, 1894. Page 3.

Topeka State Journal
1894a  “De Leeuw Will Do It.”  Topeka State Journal (newspaper) Topeka, KS. June 23, 1894. Page 8.  
1894b  “Snap Shots at Home News.” Topeka State Journal (newspaper) Topeka, KS. July 18, 1894. Page 5.  
1894c  Topeka State Journal (newspaper) Topeka, KS. July 23, 1894. Page 5.  

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Stone Cutters (Part 1): George H. Evans


The work on the Kansas Statehouse influenced some of the men hired on as laborers to pursue, at least temporarily, a career in stonework, leading to a profitable career in either the stone industry or as a jumping off point for other successes. Within the past couple of years, three of these individuals have wandered into the cultural resource investigations performed by our company. I am going to do my best to narrate the stories of these amazing men, and hopefully someone can latch on to them and give them more attention <3 . ~wmb




Photo from Illustrated Weekly 1895


Work on the Kansas Statehouse began in the fall of 1866, a contract originally granted to John G. Otis. One of the laborers on the east wing whose work at the capital would lead him to another capital project is George H. Evans. Evans was born in 1849 in Indiana, where he would serve at a young age in the Civil War. He joined the Kansas Statehouse crew first as a teamster and later as a common laborer. His experience on the east wing of the capital compelled him to learn the stone mason’s trade, where he would continue for 5 years as an apprentice and then journeyman before he struck out on his own.



His first individual projects began with limited funds and included owning tenement properties in the capital city of Topeka. Evans filled a niche with his stonework by replacing local bridges that were falling apart, constructing at least 21 bridges in Topeka and the surrounding area by 1884. Evans’ first major solo project was the $30,000 contract on the Old Soldier’s Home in Leavenworth, Kansas in 1885. In the 1890s, more big projects rolled in after he partnered with Joe Cox of Lawrence. The team would use Evans’ ties gained from his work in the capital city to win government funded projects. Evans and Cox would secure the contracts for the addition at the Osawatomie Insane Asylum; buildings at the Indian schools at both Haskell in Lawrence and Osage Mission and others listed at the end of this article.



Because of his previous relationships with others in the stone business, Evans had the inside track on both supplies and equipment that gave him the upper hand in the bidding process. His most important work came with what was ultimately a $1 million contract for the central portion of the Kansas Statehouse in the late 1880s. Evans and Cox were preferred for this project, not just because of the influence of Evans’ political connections, but in part by Evans’ electric derrick which Evans thought gave them a $25,000 advantage. The derrick was an amazing time and laborsaving device that would lift the large stones quickly and easily and place them accurately. The statehouse construction brought the firm significant profits and propelled them further to financial success.



Multiple high cost projects in the 1890s brought the firm increased recognition, however, bad business decisions, loose financial spending and a deterioration of the partnership in this time led to Evans’ downfall. The contracts for the buildings at the new Fort Bliss outside of El Paso, Texas and the Shawnee County, Kansas courthouse were significantly underbid, causing a financial burden on the partnership. Evans became convinced that Joe Cox came under the influence of another Kansas contractor, John Jack, which led to a $50,000 mistake on the Fort Bliss project, even though Evans himself was splashing around money on things like a $2000 banquet for the fort officers. The situation had shifted so significantly that Evans, who had originally prided himself on his fairness to his workers, appreciation for organized labor, and paying of union wages, had in the end had lost the respect of his foremen and ended up paying the price. Financial trouble escalated to the point that the Shawnee County Courthouse had to be completed by another contractor and Evans began losing his tenement properties for his inability to pay the mortgages. 

Shawnee County Courthouse

At the end, Evans was left utterly destitute. The respect he had gained among his peers in the capital city prompted those in the legislature to vote in 1903 to give Evans funds to pay off his depts, keeping him from total financial ruin. With the leftover money from the legislative gift, he bought a modest home in the Oakland neighborhood of Topeka. Still struggling financially, he moved in with his daughter and benefitted by a $.50 per day allowance offered him by the Rev. Charles M. Sheldon (author of the popular novel, In His Steps). Evans died in 1905, a shadow of the architectural giant he had been. He is buried in historic Topeka Cemetery. 

Cooper Memorial College Building, Sterling, KS
 
Water Works Pump House, Kansas Arts & Industries 1891
Atchison post office during construction. 1893


Evans construction projects (year in parentheses indicates date contract granted or by year mentioned):

4 dwellings and one tenement house in Topeka (1882)

Moon bridge over Mission Creek (T12, R14, Sec.9-razed) (1884)

21 bridges in Shawnee County area (1885)

Cooper Memorial College, Sterling (1887)

Topeka 6th Street Viaduct (1888)

State Industrial/Reformatory School, Hutchinson (1889)

Kansas Statehouse (1890s)

Topeka Water Works Pump House (1891)

Osawatomie Insane Asylum Addition Building (1891)

Indian School Buildings at Osage Mission and Lawrence (1891)

Atchison Post Office (1892/3)

Approaches to El Paso “public building” (1892)

Paving Harrison St., Topeka (1893)

Fort Worth Post Office (1893)

Episcopal Cathedral, Dallas (1893)

Fort Bliss (barracks, officers’ quarters, fort) El Paso (1893)

Shawnee County Courthouse (1894)



References


 Atchison Daily Globe
1905       Atchison Daily Globe (newspaper), Atchison, KS. August 10, 1905. Page 2.

Daily Commonwealth
1884      “The Improvements at Tenth Avenue Bridge – How the Work Has Been Done – A Better Class of Bridges in Shawnee County.” Daily Commonwealth (newspaper), Topeka, KS. May 27, 1884. Page 4.

1885     “Good for Topeka.” Daily Commonwealth (newspaper), Topeka, KS. April 29, 1885.       Page 5.

Illustrated Weekly
1895     “A Self Made Man,” Illustrated Weekly (newspaper), Topeka, KS. June 15, 1895. Page 3.

Kansas Arts and Industries
1891     “The Topeka Water Company,” Kansas Arts and Industries (newspaper), Topeka, KS. November 1, 1891. Page 6.

Lawrence Daily Journal
1895     Lawrence Daily Journal (newspaper), Lawrence, KS. February 2, 1895. Page 4.

Topeka Mail
1894    “The New Court House.” Topeka Mail (newspaper), Topeka, KS. May 18, 1894. Page 3.

Topeka State Journal
1905    “George Evans Dead,” Topeka State Journal (newspaper) Topeka, KS. August 9, 1905.     Page 6.

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Pondering the Holidays

Pension records are precious documents that offer up information that might not normally be obtained from the usual sources. Among all the facts offered, is also the opportunity to hear the "voice" of those giving statements in regards to the veteran in question. This became strikingly obvious when I was recently reading through the pension application for former veteran Frank Austin by his widow Lizzie. Frank had served in Company F of the 83rd United States Colored Troops (2nd Kansas Colored), and passed away in 1902. In her statements as a claimant for Frank's pension, Lizzie gave more than just the facts for the pension examiner, she gives us a glimpse into her personality. In relaying her connection personal history to the examiner, she relates time to the "Holidays".






While this is important in ascertaining that important dates for a family tree, the repetition of the statement also shows the importance of the season to Lizzie.

When looking at your pensions, don't forget to read between the lines, your people might be saying more than you think they are! 

We wish you your own historic holiday season! ;) 

Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Taking a Look at a Page


Recently I was conducting some research for a book I’m writing and was delving into the realm of the legislative panels at the Kansas Historical Society in order to find portraits of some key individuals for that project. Early panels are rather simple, became more complex through the years as the state grew and more features started appearing within them – pictures of anyone associated with legislative activities (doorkeepers, sergeant at arms, clerks, etc…). One feature that caught my eye was pictures of children like this one of the 1875 House of Representatives: 

Original photo on file at the Kansas Historical Society, Topeka, KS.

Who are they? Was the answer as simple as the youth being legislative pages? If so, the African American boy may be easy to identify because he would be a rarity for this time. I love tackling bunny trails like this because they present a challenge – it’s like a personal check on my research skills. Actually, I may need a twelve-step program for it, but we’ll go with the former because using it to continue my education sounds better right? ;) The short answer to my question is – yes! They are pages.

Becoming a page at this time was highly competitive, applicants would at times number more than a couple of dozen, with just a handful being selected for the honor. “There is a young army of little boys and girls seeking positions of page in both houses of the legislature, and some of them display remarkably fine judgment in electioneering and presenting their respective claims for the positions they are seeking.” (Holton Express 1875:2).

Narrowing down the number of applicants for the final selection of Senate pages in 1875 was so intense that the Senate took a 25-minute recess and then went directly into caucus to decide upon two page positions (Daily Commonwealth 1875:1). For the House of Representatives in 1875 (above picture), selection was finally made for Josie Bell, Charles Jones, Emma Duncan, Minnie A. Scrafford, Jennie Maxwell, and Thomas Taylor (Wyandotte Gazette 1875:2).  

The page’s residence like today was not limited to just the surrounding area, which begs the question of how the duties were worked around their school terms. Jennie Maxwell, however, of the House pages was from Topeka. A bright and responsible student, this was Jennie’s second time as a legislative page; she first served in 1871 at the age of 12. At the end of the 1875 session, she was named specifically by the legislature for her and “the other pages for the unvarying courtesy, thoughtful attention and marked promptitude and ability with which each and all have discharged their several duties” (Atchison Weekly Patriot 1875:2). Duties for the pages were much like they are today, carrying messages, bringing water to the representatives, etc… (Winfield Courier 1876:2).

Despite her age at the time of her first term of service in 1871, Jennie was accepted into a group of women who met at the Tefft House (owned by Charles Jennison of Kansas Civil War notoriety) that were active in various positions in the legislature, such as clerks (Kansas State Record 1871:4). The suffrage movement had started gaining momentum in the early 1870s and legislative positions were freeing for women and allowed them a chance to take part in the political process even before they were allowed to vote.

Allowances as clerks and pages were still disputed among some legislators that held anti-suffrage views. Such is the case in 1876 when Rosa Blanton was chosen as a page to the House of Representatives (Rosa was the niece of Napoleon Blanton who was well known in early Kansas for his crossing of the Wakarusa River in Douglas County): 

“There were twenty-seven candidates for pages, and the discussion on the claims of each was earnest, spirited and prolonged. Mr. Eskridge made an eloquent speech in favor of a young man named Blanton, stating that he was prompted in his efforts in favor of his candidate at the request of a brother member, Mr. Wood, who was now absent. After Mr. Eskridge had concluded his thrilling effort in favor of his candidate, the young man, and had taken his seat, he again rose and stated that he had been mistaken in the sex of his candidate – that it was a young lady – Rosa Blanton, whom he wished to have elected. This statement was received with shouts of laughter, the well-known opposition of Mr. Eskridge to female suffrage doubtless contributing to the amusement. Mr. Eskridge gracefully relieved himself from his embarrassment by explaining that it was the principle he was contending for, not personal preferences" (Kansas Daily Tribune 1876:5).

Women were not the only ones that found empowerment though legislative positions. In 1875, John Carter who was a man of color from Topeka, was elected to the position of assistant doorkeeper (Winfield Courier 1876:2). Mr. Carter was the only individual in the legislature in that year, aside from the aforementioned young page, to be of African descent. The doorkeeper position was the only position allowed to speak during legislative proceedings, announcing the various members. An 1885 panel showed an African American man, Sam Lee of Lawrence, that held the assistant doorkeeper position. He was paid $3 a month for his service (CITE).

I finally had to tear myself away from all the bunny trails that arose from looking at these panels. It is something that would be fun to return to again. Many of the Kansas panels can be found on www.kansasmemory.org, search term “legislative panel.”

References Cited:
Atchison Weekly Patriot
1875    Atchison Weekly Patriot (newspaper), Atchison, KS. March 13, 1875, page 2.

Daily Commonwealth
1875     "Kansas Legislature". Daily Commonwealth (newspaper), Topeka, KS. January 13, 1875, page 1.

Holton Express
1875       Holton Express (newspaper), Holton, KS. January 15, 1875, page 2.

Kansas Daily Tribune
1875       “House”, Kansas Daily Tribune (newspaper), Lawrence, KS, January 15, 1876, page 5.

Kansas State Record
1875       “A Levee”, Kansas State Record (newspaper), Topeka, KS. January 10, 1871, page 4.

Winfield Courier
1876       “Conclusions Concerning Capital City Carpet Baggers”, Winfield Courier (newspaper), Winfield, KS. February 17, 1876, page 2.

Wyandotte Gazette
1875       “Legislature Organized”. Wyandotte Gazette (newspaper), Wyandotte, KS. January 15, 1875, page 2.